In the tradition kenpo educational institutions of Mitose and Chow, teachers used dark and learners used white. Both Adriano Emperado and Ed Parker came from the Chow school and taken on that uniforms at first. In 1955 Kajukenbo went dark for all students. In Hawaii islands there are generally two MA categories, those in white (Japanese/Okinawan/Korean) and those in dark (Kajukenbo/kenpo). Some EPAK educational institutions are all dark, and some still keep the kenpo uniforms of dark for teachers, and white for learners. It probably relies on the trainer or school.